Friday, September 20, 2019

A Study On Scottish Smoking Ban Social Policy Essay

A Study On Scottish Smoking Ban Social Policy Essay When it comes to health and social policy, governments have the difficult task of balancing the desires and rights of individuals with the desires and rights of society as a whole. This is particularly evident in the recent smoking legislation in the Scotland. Current literature and opinion has much focused on the effect of smoking bans on the hospitality industry, and the cost to society of tobacco-related illnesses. This literature review examines the social policy considerations of the recent ban on smoking proposed by the Scottish Executive and currently under consideration. This review first considers the smoking ban bill and an overview of smoking restriction issues. It then deals with one smoker in particular, examining the effect of the proposed legislation on the complex care issues of a middle-aged cancer patient, and the balance between her right to choose her actions, even if self-destructive, and the rights of others in the hospital where she resides. Smoking is undeniably destructive to the smoker, and the Scottish government is considering action to restrict its use. Among other things, the Scottish Smoking, Health and Social Care Bill will prohibit smoking in wholly enclosed public places (Scottish Parliament 12-2004). It faces final vote in 2005, with implementation, if it passes, scheduled for 2006. Objectives listed in the bill include preventing people, including children, from being exposed to the effects of passive smoking in certain public areas and safeguarding the health of the people of Scotland from the effects of tobacco smoke (Scottish Parliament 2-2005). There is also hope for changing public attitudes towards smoking, preventing Scots from beginning to smoke, and assisting those smokers who want to quit in breaking the habit Scottish Parliament 2-2005). Similar legislation has recently been implemented in Ireland, Norway, and parts of the US with great success (BBC 2004). According to Irish Medical Organisation p resident James Reilly, in the almost one year Ireland has banned smoking in public, cigarette sales have dropped sixteen percent, demonstrating that more Irish are quitting or reducing smoking (Salvage 2005, 36). The need to reduce the destruction caused by smoking, therefore, is not limited to Scotland. Countries around the world have begun to address the tobacco situation, with over forty ratifying the WHOs Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO 2004). The FCTC just went into effect in February 2005, establishes packaging and labelling guidelines, addresses tobacco advertising, provides for regulation to prevent second hand smoke, and tightens efforts on tobacco smuggling (WHO 2004, WHO 2003). The Scottish legislation replaces the less than effective Scottish Voluntary Charter on Smoking in Public Places. Implemented in May 2000, as of 2005 only 61% of hospitality establishments had some type of non-smoking provision, demonstrating the Charters inadequacies (Anon 2005). Bill ONeil, Scottish Secretary of the British Medical Association, supports the bill, contending that each year we continue to rely on these half-hearted measures, Scots continue to suffer from passive smoke-related illnesses and significant numbers die (BBC 2004). Smoking is a profoundly destructive health and social issue. The World Health Organisation (2005) lists tobacco as the second major cause of death in the world, affecting one in ten adults worldwide. Half the people who smoke today, that is about 650 million people, will eventually be killed by tobacco (WHO 2005). The government contends, smoking is the main avoidable cause of early death in Britain, killing more than 120,000 people a year, even publishing a White Paper titled Smoking Kills (Gardiner 2004, DOH 1998). Scotlands Chief Medical Officer, Mac Armstrong states nicotine is twice as addictive as cocaine and that it takes sixteen years off the average smokers life (Johnson 2004, 8). Tobacco is also destructive to non-smokers. Smoking and exposure to passive smoke are the fourth most common risk factor for disease of any kind worldwide (WHO 2004). This risk extends to those who choose to smoke, and those who are exposed to others cigarettes, regardless of choice. The Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health (2005) concludes that exposure to second hand smoke, also called environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and asthma, and represents a substantial public health hazard. Jim Devine of Unison stated to continue to allow people to work in smoky environments is the 21st century equivalent of sending children up chimneys (BBC 2004). Studies find children regularly exposed to second hand cigarette smoke are more likely to develop asthma (Johnson 2004, 8). Mac Armstrong offers that due to passive smoking, between 1000 and 2000 lives are lost each year in Scotland (Johnson 2004, 8). Some smoking opponents question why it is legal at all, given its social cost and overall destructive impact on human life. Proponents of smoking argue that adequate ventilation would address much of the second hand smoke risk. However, workplaces with designated smoking areas have been shown to still expose smoke to workers (Leourardy and Kleiner 2000, 68). It also raises the question of who should pay for such ventilation. Tobacco already has staggering economic costs to society, typically claiming the lives of people at the ages when they are most productive and exponentially increasing health care costs (WHO 2005). The average smoker takes 25% more sick days than the average non-smoker (Johnson 2004, 8). These costs are passed on to all members of society, whether they choose to smoke or not, just like second hand smoke. Other typical arguments against smoking bans are economic. Tobacco companies and members of the Scottish Licensed Trade Association have argued that a full ban is unnecessary and not supported by the public (BBC 2004). Opponents of the smoking ban contend it will ruin business, cause unemployment, and take away peoples right to enjoy a cigarette with a drink in public (Johnson 2004, 8). Tobacco Manufacturers Association executive Tim Lord held that a study commissioned by the TMA showed 77% of Scots were opposed to a total smoking ban, particularly disfavouring the ban in clubs, pubs, and bars (BBC 2004). These results were not supported by independent studies, however. A policy memorandum produced for the Scottish Parliament found 70% of Scots in favour of smoking restrictions, with 59% of restaurant owners not expecting any negative impact from the legislation (Scottish Parliament 2-2004). More importantly, any economic impact of smoking restriction must be considered in light of t he tremendous cost of smoking to society. Not all opponents of smoking bans cite economic reasons. Salvage (2005, 36) contends, human rights and freedom of choice are two reasons put forward for [smoking] bans not going ahead. For example, opponents of bans cite the uproar of violation of human rights caused by the recent smoking ban in Liverpool. Health Minister Melanie Johnson stated the bill was incompatible with the Human Rights Act, because it extended smoking bans to private homes and prisons, required smokers to prove their innocence, effectively reversing the burden of proof, and extended the power of searches (Merrick 2005). MPs and peers ruled that it breached human rights laws, while a cross-party human rights committee found the smoking ban bill incompatible with the right to a private life, and possibly the right to a fair trail and the protection of property (Merrick 2005). These impositions on human rights, however, seem based on the bills reach beyond public places, and the manner with which that reach is exe cuted. It is unlikely that the legislation currently under consideration in Scotland will have similar flaws. Questions do arise of the National Health Services ability to enforce such legislation. Under the current bill, smoking policies would be enforced by environmental health officers, hired by local councils (Scottish Parliament 12-2004). It is questionable whether they will have the same effect as would police officers, particularly if trying to enforce no-smoking legislation in pubs and bars. As the patient considered here is confined to a hospital, enforcement is not an issue. Of greater concern regarding the National Health Service is whether it will be able to provide the necessary support for smokers who want to quit. Approximately one-third of smokers try to quit each year, but only three percent succeed (Lewis 2005). Kevin Lewis (2005), Clinical Director of Smoking Cessation of Shropshire, Telford, and Shrewsbury, believes, however, there is great potential for smoking cessation in primary care. If smoking bans are accomplish their objectives of reducing the number of smokers and amount they smoke, adequate resources must be available. The greatest success occurs when a motivated individual is provided with a combination of personal support and pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement or bupropion), under the care of a trained medical professional, typically a nurse (Lewis 2005). As the government progresses with smoking legislation, preparation and funding for the NHS are imperative to the ultimate success of smoking restrictions. To provide some background on the specific case considered in this review, the female patient in reference is forty-three years of age. She began smoking at the age of fifteen, and smoked regularly throughout her life. This is not surprising, as 80% of smokers take up tobacco as children and teenagers (Johnson 2004, 8). The patient was diagnosed with lung cancer at the age of forty, which has progressed with some rapidity; her cancer is now inoperable, untreatable, and terminal. She has recently suffered loss of mobility, in addition to general physical degeneration. Due to these complications, the patient now requires a wheelchair to travel even short distances, including going outside the hospital. She is unable to navigate the wheelchair to the common area outside the facility without assistance. The patient, however, continues to smoke, and the recent ban will make her unable to smoke in her room or a designated indoor area of the hospital. In addition, hospital staff is not allo wed to assist her in going outside for smoking purposes, per hospital policy. She must therefore wait for visitors to take her out. There are several factors of prominence in this particular case study. First, while the government has some (albeit debated) responsibly to protect its citizens from themselves, there are no grounds for the need to guard this woman from the effects of smoking (Lambert and Dibsdall 2002). She has irrevocably made the decision to smoke, and bears the consequences. It is unlikely that quitting smoking now will have a pronounced difference on the time she has remaining or on her prognosis. The government therefore has no right for intervention to protect her from the harms of tobacco. The debate then emerges between her human rights to decide her own behaviour and receive adequate care, her responsibility to society, the rights of hospital staff, patients, and visitors regarding second-hand smoke, and the mandate of the hospital to act in the best interest of the patients health and well-being. Advanced societies recognise the right of every human being to make choices regarding his or her behaviour and life, to the point these choices negatively impact others (Perry 1985, 568). The patient, as a part of a larger society, has a responsibility to the members of her community. She is affected by legislation that could save others, and her government does have a responsibility to encourage its citizens to make wise decisions. Smoking is certainly not a wise decision, as even tobacco companies and smoking ban opponents acknowledge its addictive nature and potential for impaired health (Anon 2005; Black, McKie and Allen 2003, 69). The patient undoubtedly recognises this, as she is dying due greatly to her choice to smoke. Certain laws are passed not because they are required for everyone, but because they are needed by most (Perry 1985, 574). For example, many people would drive at excessive speeds from time to time were it not for speed limits. While there are a few that could probably do so without accident, most need speed guidelines to drive safely. The major difference with smoking is the effect of tobacco smoke on those in the general area. Second-hand smoke, as discussed previously, has been shown to be almost as deadly as actually smoking, and it is often beyond the control of the non-smoker to limit smoking in his or her vicinity. Those commonly cited in this argument are wait staff in clubs and bars, but the same would apply to hospital staff required to clean a designated smoking area or move patients in and out of it (Aung et al 2001, 283; Cuthbert and Nickson 1999, 33). These workers are then faced with either exposing themselves to a potential carcinogen or giving up their jobs (Aung et al 2001, 280). As the patients rights extend only to the point they impact others, the government is therefore within its bounds to restrict her smoking in enclosed areas of the hospital. The question then presents itself, does the patient have the right to continue her destructive behaviour, and what is the hospitals mandate to prevent her injurious choices? J. David Velleman (1999), in writing about his own bout with cancer, discusses the rights of smokers in society. Instead of focusing on second hand smoke as the effect of smoking on non-smokers, he considers the relationship between the individual and society. He sees himself as my sons father, my wifes husband, my parents son, my brothers brother (Velleman 1999, 606). However, he comes to the conclusion that a person has a right to make his own life shorter in order to make it better, if he so chooses and however he defines better. Social organisations, like governments or hospitals, only have the right to intervene when the individual is incapable of rational decision (Velleman 1999, 613). While the patient therefore has the right to smoke, she does not have the right to expect assistance from the hospital. A hospital, as a medical facility, has a corporate responsibility to its patients to promote their healthy living (BBC 2005). Hospitals would not be expected to provide candy machines for uncontrolled diabetics or allow suicidal patients to keep sharp objects. The hospital has a responsibility to promote health (BBC 2005). While this patient may not be more harmed by continuing to smoke, providing assistance or a smoking area for her would require the hospital to do the same for all its patients, thereby assisting many in smoking which would damage their health. The visible issue is her mobility; if she were able to go outside unassisted, her smoking choice would not be limited. It is the combination of her damaging desire to smoke and her degenerative condition that create the quandary. The most feasible solution is to ask the patient to provide her own assistance to and from the outdoor smoking area. Since she is choosing destructive behaviour that the hospital cannot support, she must find a way to accomplish such behaviour. The government and the hospital in the above instance have the right to impose smoking restrictions on the patient for the good of society as a whole. Both organisations have a mandate to protect those in their community from risk to health, and smoking is most certainly a risk to health. Neither, however, has the right to prevent her from smoking. Therein lies the balance. In her situation, she must find or arrange for someone to help her in her choice to smoke. We as members of society can choose to pursue self-destructive behaviours, but society has no obligation to support us in their pursuit. REFERENCES Anon 2005. Second hand smoke: health risks. Scottish Executive Health website [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Aung, M. et al, 2001. An exploratory study of the smoking issue in restaurants. Management Decision, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 279-285. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. BBC 2004. Scotland smoking ban to go ahead. BBC news, Scotland [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. BBC 2005. The Hippocratic Oath. Nova online [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Black, M., McKie, L., Allen, E., 2003. A community development approach to tobacco control. Health Education, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 68-74. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Cuthbert, L., Nickson, D., 1999. Smoking in the restaurant industry: time for a ban? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31-36. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. DOH 1998. Smoking Kills: a White Paper on tobacco. The Stationery Office, London. Gardiner, B., 2004. Scotland readies tough smoking ban, England may follow. Associated Press, Oban, Scotland, Nov. 15, 2004 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Johnson, J., 2004. The Huff Puff CafÃÆ'Â ©. The Sunday Herald, Fresh Section, December 5, 2004. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Lambert, N., Dibsdall, L.A., Frewer, L.J., 2002. Poor diet and smoking: the big killers. Comparing health education in two hazard domains. British Food Journal, vol. 104, no.1, pp. 63-75. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Leourardy, B., Kleiner, B., 2000. New developments concerning tobacco smoke in the workplace. Management Research News, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 67-70. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Lewis, K., 2005. Helping patients to quit smoking. The Practitioner, 8 March, 2005. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Malam., S., et al 2004. Workplace Smoking Policies in Scotland. Scottish Exectuive and NHS Health Scotland, research report [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Perry, T., 1985. Two Domains of Rights. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 45, no. 4, June 1985, pp. 567-580 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Salvage, F., 2005. Smoking Cessation: Should it be banned? Chemist Druggist, March 5, 2005 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Scottish Parliament 2-2004. Prohibiltion of Smoking in Regulated Areas (Scotland) Bill. Policy Memorandum, introduced 3 February 2004 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Scottish Parliment 12-2004. Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Bill. Executive Bill, introduced 16 December 2004 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. van Teijlingen, E., Bruce, J., 1999. Systematic reviews of health promotion initiatives the Smokebusters experience. Health Education, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 76-83 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. Velleman, J., 1999. A Right of Self-Termination? Ethics, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 606-628, April 1999 [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. WHO 2003. An international treaty for tobacco control. World Health Organisation [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. WHO 2004. Tobacco Treaty set to become law, making global health history. World Health Organisation [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005. WHO 2005. Why is tobacco a public health priority? World Health Organisation [online]. Available at, accessed 19 March 2005.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Cold Fusion Essay -- essays research papers

Cold Fusion: The Continuing Mystery In March of 1989, a discovery was made that rocked the scientific world. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman had announced that they were able to create and sustain a cold fusion process. After intense media attention, and corresponding interest in future test, the subject seemed to have faded away. Future tests proved inconclusive, and when the quick promise of easy energy didn’t materialize, most quickly forgot the subject. Little is said about the continuing research in the scientific community to further our understanding of the free energy enigma. Is it science fiction, on the border of legitamete science, or is it a practical field worthy of serious attention?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cold Fusion is the merging of two dissimilar metal hydrides. The process is exothermic, and can generate energy in one of two ways. Energy can be input in to a system and multiplied, or energy alone can be generated although in a much smaller amount. For example, one watt of energy can be input and 3 watts recovered. Some systems are capable of producing hundreds of watts per individual watt. The actual physics of the reaction is not completely understood. Some claim it is merely a chemical reaction not yet understood, while others are convinced it is a nuclear reaction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One example is a cold fusion cell which used .04 grams of metal hydride. It produced 86 megajoules over a two month period. A similar chemical reaction would have required 2,000 grams of chemicals to produce the same amount of energy. Another interesting point regarding this cell was the fact it had to be deliberately shut down. There was no sign of the reaction tapering off.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The skepticism regarding cold fusion stems from two separate studies, one done by MIT, and the other by the Energy Resources Advisory Board. The MIT study has been palled by attacks on the methods used to present the information. The chief science writer at the Institute denounced the study and resigned. The report contained altered graphs and an unclear method. The ERAB report was inconclusive, but presented to congress in a such a way as to present all of the negatives in order to maintain funding for their existed programs, instead of transferring research money to others.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Numerous labs across the... ...clear reaction at all. Some think that the process is merely a chemical reaction not yet understood by today’s laws of chemistry. This presents numerous gray areas in the understanding of the reactions taking place in the experiments. If indeed it is a chemical reaction then there is some flaw in our understanding of chemical reactions. The lack of nuclear byproducts when in theory there should be lends strong credence to this belief though. Only continued experimentation and new exploration will help explain the mystery.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The use of cold fusion would be a boon to mankind. It’s use would solve all energy delimmas currently facing the petroleum dependant modern society. Elimination of pollution, economy, and ready availability of raw materials would be a tremendous improvement over today’s combustion engines and chemical cells. More so than any other alternative energy solution, cold fusion presents a source that is truly renewable and, if it lives up to it’s hypothesis, a large enough amount of power. No other means to date has proven it’s practical use on a large scale. Cold fusion could be the solution to the problems of global warming and pollution.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

day spa marketing plan Essay -- essays research papers

Industry Overview: There are an estimated 12,100 spas throughout the United States. In the U.S. the largest spa category, accounting for seven of every ten spas, is day spa. Resort and hotel spas are the second largest, with club spas, medical spas, mineral spring spas and destination spas respectively trailing. Geographically speaking, the distribution of spas in the U.S. generally parallels that of the population distributions with the largest region being the North East. According to the ISPA (The International SPA Association) in 2003 there were approximately 136 million spa visits made in the U.S. Sixty percent (60%) of these visits were to day spas while 27% were to resort and hotel spas and the remaining 13% were spread across the four other types of spas. The U.S. spa industry generated an estimated $11.2 billion in revenues in that same year. Fifty two percent (52%) of a spa ¡Ã‚ ¦s revenue is gained from its treatment rooms. Despite being the largest segment, day spas, accounts only for just under half of that revenue at 49% The Kline Group research suggested a strong growth (2003-04) in the spa market close to 11% from driving forces such as: „à Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  High levels of media attention „à Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Increased number of product brands „à Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Greater consumer awareness of market products/benefits „à Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lower price points relative to surgical and non-surgical procedures „à Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anti-aging trend continues Between 2002 and 2004 studies from the ISPA concurred with an annual growth rate of 12%. Since its growth rate peak in 2000 at 51%, the number has gradually moderated. As in any industry, demand is the driving force that determines how well the industry performs.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Competitive Profile: With the largest population of day spas being located in the North East region the competition is tough but not unbeatable. Top Competitors in DaiSpa ¡Ã‚ ¦s market include: „X  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Elizabeth Grady, Framingham, MA Hair, nails, body treatments, facials, make-up (direct competitor) „X  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Paul Conzo Day Spa and Hair Salon, Worcester, MA Manicures, Pedicures, Body Wraps, Hair, Nails, Spa Treatment Packages, Facials, Glycol Peels „X  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ardan Salon & D... ...ving to compete with beauty specialty stores that sell spa and salon products. Advertising and promotion will be subtly forcefull to if nothing else to get you excited and intrigued. Plant the  ¡Ã‚ §we should check that place out ¡Ã‚ ¨ seed. We will be running an extensive and quite costly advertising and promotion strategy. Radio, some local television during the prime news hours, drop leafs in major magazines, news print, bus sides, living and entertainment media. We will also be making brochures with our product and service menu available at local venues with coinsiding business i.e. health clubs, surgical offices, & medical offices. We will also place ads on bulletin boards of local universities and apartment/condo complexes. Service/Product Offering The following is a brief list of the services and products that will be offered at the spa: o Facials and Skin Care Treatment: European, corrective, therapeutic, and relaxing. o Nail services: Sculptured manicures, pedicures, and paraffin treatments. o Total Body Treatments: Full body massage, body wraps, reflexology treatments.. o Beauty Products: Full skin care line of facial and body products, herbs, and essential oils.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Manila and Rizal Essay

Even if this great man lived a century and a half ago, his teachings and the ideals he embodied are still alive today. In fact, there is a little bit of Jose Rizal in everyone if you only take a close look. He would probably squander his fortunes by now, because he loves women, and he is probably working as on OFW maybe as a Mercenary for a private military company abroad. Or he immigrated to Spain and worked as a Physician†¦ And enjoys the weekend at the beach with his girlfriends, or he could have been Public Enemy number one for speaking the truth against the corrupt Religious establishments and Philippine Government. Much of Rizal’s greatness has been downplayed over the years. Most people only know of Dr. Rizal as the writer of two Filipino literary pieces that are studied in high school. He appears on the humble one peso coin. Hundreds gather at Rizal Park, even if not to remember our national hero, then to spend a leisurely Sunday afternoon. However, people may wonder how a man born 150 years ago can be considered relevant in today’s times. The Philippines is no longer under Spanish Rule, and there’s no revolution going on. Filipinos are still being oppressed by debilitating poverty. The country’s resources are being raped. While we declare ourselves to be a democracy, there is no authentic freedom from the bondage of poverty, illiteracy, corruption and the manipulation of the masses. Or maybe other people would think of him as an ordinary person just like you and me. He is not going to be our national hero if he were alive today. But knowing the capability of Rizal he might just be one of the Philippines prominent personality like.Casino.Abalos.Fernando etc†¦Also in the politics because Rizal is a known speaker and a critics of the government then. But didn’t you notice that is why Rizal was born in those time and age for him to be somebody else. He wasn’t put to be in these time & age. Why? Because his talent and his ability will be gone for naught or for nothing. That is why there is a time for each and every one of us, not to the time we choose it to be but what God has plan for all of us. But some people would also say that. Rizal was not meant for this time. He has his own place and time just like we do. If ever he was living at this time, probably the Philippines are speaking in different languages just like him. And the Philippines are much more stable in economic terms. You don’t need to be a doctor, rich, well educated, well traveled or get shot in the back to be like Rizal. There is Rizal in you if you love your country, if you respect your fellowman and want what is best for the nation. If you are willing to set aside your personal interests for that of the common or greater good, then there is Rizal in you I think Jose Rizal would work as an ophthalmologist and serve the poor people in depressed areas†¦ At the same time He would educate the Filipino youth as a teacher. He’d be the first one to write articles against the corrupt government. If Jose Rizal were alive today, he would probably run for public office, since nowadays, that’s what heroes and sons of heroes do. He would even likely be President. Up to this day, the received wisdom is that he had retracted and the many objections to it have been forgotten through the years. Rizal’s alleged retraction became just another controversy and his heroism diminished under a cloud. Fortunately, Rizal was both intellectually gifted, having mastered many different languages and being a versatile genius in many fields; and strong in character, as he possessed outstanding traits like courage, devotion to truth, integrity, selflessness, and loyalty. Jose Rizal gives all of us inspiration in all the things we do. He is inspires us to be hardworking and diligent, which most of us are not. Rizal is our hero, our inspiration, our lesson of the past that we should be a man for our country.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Republic Act No. 9293

Section 15. Qualification requirement of applicants.Number of units in professional education required of non-education graduates. At least eighteen (18) units in professional educationSection 2. Section 26 of the same Act is hereby amended to read as follows:Section 26. Registration and Exception.No person shall engage in teaching and/or act as a professional teacher as defined in this Act, whether in the preschool, elementary or secondary level, unless the person is a duly registered professional teacher, and a holder of a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license or a holder of a valid special/temporary permit. Who can be issued a license without examination?A holder of a certificate of eligibility as a teacher issued by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education, Culture and Sports; or (b) A registered professional teacher with the National Board for Teachers under the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) pursuant to Presid ential Decree No. 1006.What is required of teachers who have not practiced their profession for the past 5 years? Take at least twelve (12) units of education courses, consisting of a least six (6) units of pedagogy and six (6) units of context courses or the equivalent training and number of hours .What is the required rating for para-teachers? Not lower than five percentage points from the passing general average rating. (The para-teachers shall be assigned to areas where there is a shortage or absence of a professional teacher)Other tha para-teacher, who else are entitled to a special permit? A person who has excelled and gained international recognition and is a widely  acknowledged expert in his or her respective field of specialization.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Exploring the Concept of Project Appraisals Essay

Project appraisal is a generic term that refers to the process of assessing, in a structured way, the case for proceeding with a project or proposal. In short, project appraisal is the effort of calculating a project’s viability.[1] It often involves comparing various options, using economic appraisal or some other decision analysis technique. Or in other terms it is Systematic and comprehensive review of the economic, environmental, financial, social, technical and other such aspects of a project to determine if it will meet its objectives. Project appraisal is a structured, systematic and a comprehensive process to assess the financial, economic, social, environmental and technical viability of a project. The quality of the project appraisal is the main determinant of success of a project. As per the experience of the World Bank, poorly appraised projects have seven times more probability of failure within three years of their implementation as compared to well appraised projects. As all projects compete for scarce resources, good quality investment appraisal of projects, quantification of risks of different stakeholders and well laid out strategies to manage risks expedite financial closure and timely completion of projects. In the developing economies, the infrastructure sectors such as Power, Roads and Highways, Telecommunications, Ports, Airports, Water Supply, Irrigation and Shipping, Railways and Sewerage systems require large investments. Adoption of sound project appraisal methodologies expedites investment in these sectors which are crucial for economic growth. In the banker perspective a structured analytical tool to take a credit decision, the basic premises of an appraisal are to assess and analyze the promoters, viability of the business macro & micro environment of the business, business financials various risk and its mitigations, permission and approval form regulatory bodies,

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Bright Light Innovations SWOT Analysis Essay

A group of professional members of Colorado State University excited about developing and marketing the product The Starlight Stove consumes 50 to 70 percent less fuel than regular stoves The stove generates electricity from a thermoelectric generator. Competitors do not offer the same features as the Starlight Stove. Increase household income because Starlight Stoves allows families to focus more on earning more money rather than collecting fuel or wood to generate electricity The Starlight Stove costs less than the competition Weaknesses The university is a non-profit organization, making it harder to find funding Working adults in Nepal make between $1 and $3 per day Less than half of the Nepalese population can read Marketing campaign needs to be adjusted based on technology limitations Management is launching its product in a very unique culture with economic uncertainty that can bring many challenges to the team Opportunities Offer an innovative product, Starlight Stove, where consumers can safely cook Expand to the Nepal market as the climate is accessible to promote the new product There is a target market of 89 percent of households that need electricity in Nepal The Starlight Stove will directly contribute to the reduction of erosion and flooding in Nepal Starlight Stove technologies can increase household efficiency by more than 20 percent per day Children can focus more on education because Starlight generates more hours of light Threats Streams and rivers can create micro-hydropower, allowing households to generate electricity at no additional cost Solar panels can offer electricity to many households Nepal’s division into 75 districts creates a market segmentation that become a true challenge when introducing the new product The management team not  being able to find a funding institution that can provide loans to the Nepalese people Evaluation of Alternatives Bright Light Innovations has a series of considerations that need to be reviewed before making final decisions. Introducing a new product on such a unique market can represent a lot of challenges for management (Mckeever, 2005). Culture and population are important factors for management to evaluate before reaching onto this market (refer to Appendix A). There are good factors such as climate and social needs that make Nepal a strong market to introduce the stove business. However, funding and household income are big concerns for management because even though there are a lot of strengths and opportunities for Bright Light Innovations in Nepal, treats and weaknesses can negatively impact the launching of the Starlight Stove in the Nepalese market. Management wants to be a for-profit business and in order to make a profit they would have to sell the Starlight Stove for $80 per unit. As described in the case, there are about 9.2 million households in Nepal, but the GNI per capital is approximately $400. Nepalese people do not make more than $3 per week, which limits management when making pricing decisions. Micro-financing might be a possibility but they have to consider that not all households have a fixed income. Consequently, finance institutions might be hesitant to provide loans to some of the families. Since management does not want to look to donations, grants, or government relief, they will have to reach onto business leaders, government members of Nepal, and other institutions to expose the product and all the benefits it can bring to the country. As described above, some of the benefits of the Starlight Stove are: offers an innovative technology where consumers can safely cook, contributes to reduce erosion and flooding in the area, increases household efficiency by more than 20 percent per day, and generates more hours of light which can help children focus more on education. If Bright Light Innovations decides to manufacture the Starlight Stove locally, it can represent an increase in local jobs, income per capital, and children’s education. In addition, it can drastically decrease deforestation and indoor air pollution (top ten causes of mortality). Therefore, strong marketing strategies and decisions have to be introduced to effectively promote the Starlight Stove throughout the 75 districts (60  villages consisting of 450 villages). Management needs to carefully consider the marketing plan for this product since there are technology limitations and only half of the adults can read in Nepal. Support of Recommendations Market segmentation allows marketers to understand customers’ needs and identify target markets (Peter & Donnelly, 2011). Bright Light Innovations will be able to evaluate different segments to determine differential advantages in each of those segments. Furthermore, management will be able to determine any of the particular marketing mix for a more successful strategic plan. Market segmentation can be obtained by researching geographic data (zip code, region, etc), demographic data (age, occupation, nationality, etc), psychographic data (social status, personal type, etc), behavioral data (customer behavior), or any other data that can be beneficial to the research (Kawasaki, 2004). According to Hyman and Sierra (2010), before a service or product is introduced into the market, the marketer needs to have a good understanding of the consumer’s needs and preferences. For that reason, it is recommended that management considers all of the limitations and challenges that t he Nepalese market has for the Starlight Stove. Major decisions need to be made by management to effectively make profit on this product. Therefore, since there are similar characteristics in northern India, management should consider this other market as another possible option (see Appendix B). India is a far more developed country than Nepal. India is ranked in the lower-middle-income group with a GNI per capital of approximately $1500 (The World Bank, 2014). On the other hand, Nepal is ranked in the low-income group. There are other possible markets in South Asia that can be consider and might represent a less challenge, especially since management is looking to make profit. Bright Light Innovations needs to consider GNI numbers before deciding where this product will be launched. Because there are technology limitations in Nepal, management will need to create a marketing campaign that can be clear and easy to understand by the Nepalese citizens. Magazines are always a great source of marketing, but these can represent a chal lenge in Nepal since only half of the adults can read and 11% of the households have electricity. Therefore, visuals and signs can be strategically placed among the different villages to target the corresponding districts. Bright Light  Innovations can go to the schools and educate the children about how the Starlight Stove can benefit their families and their lives as they represent the future generations in Nepal. In this way, children can speak to their parents about everything they have learned about this new innovative and affordable new product. Management can also arrange meetings with each of the local governments to introduce the product and explain all the benefits that can bring to the local communities. In this way, local government officials can help Bright Light Innovations hold local gatherings with audio-visual systems that can attract as many villagers as possible. Management can speak to the crowd about the benefits of the Starlight Stove and demonstrate its features through a live demo or lively entertaining video. The audience will get to know the product and understand the positive impact that can have for their families and environment. A market segmentation process has to be created to determine the households who have electricity and target the appropriate market to obtain an analysis of consumer’s needs and preferences (Fiore, 2005). Management will have to create a strategic marketing plan to reach those customers who already have electricity (e.g. solar panels) and might be interested in saving money. According to Perreault, Cannon, and McCarthy (2013), marketers need to do a competitor analysis to â€Å"compare the strengths and weaknesses of your current (or planned) target market and marketing mix with what competitors are currently doing or are likely to do in response of your strategy† (p. 63). For example, promotional materials are important factors in the success of a marketing plan (Horvà ¡th, Mitev, & Bauer, 2014). Management need to create advertisement with lots of visuals that provide information about the Starlight Stove to attract villagers from different areas. Bright Light Innovations needs to find a financial institution that can offer flexible loans to the Nepalese villagers as household incomes vary from district to district. If the product is manufactured locally, which can save a lot of import taxes, management might consider establishing a discount program for the employees. As a result, more locals will be able to afford buying the Starlight Stove, increasing brand name and brand loyalty throughout the villages. In today’s economy, marketing strategies have to be flexible enough to accommodate market needs and preferences. 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